Functional Movement Screening is not an accurate injury predictor in Sport

By Suegnet Meyer

Functional movement screening (FMS) is a tool that consist of 7 tests. It is widely used by trainers, coaches and therapists to predict if an athlete is at risk of injury. Many have raised their scepticism regarding the true value of using these tests as injury predictor.

In a recent systematic review (Moran et al., 2017), documented that FMS composite scores prediction and injuries that occurred, did not correlate. ‘Moderate’ evidence exist  ‘against’ using FMS in football injury prediction. Limited and conflicting evidence exists in basketball, running, police and firefighters. Various cases were assessed and ‘strong’ evidence was found that a high FMS composite scores, predicting a high injury risk, only resulted in a small amount of injuries sustained in military personnel. Although FMS has good to excellent inter- and intra-reliability, it is advised not to base injury prediction on FMS, as it is inaccurate.

Reference:

Moran, R., Schneiders, R.W., Mason, J., Sullivan, S.J., (2017). Do Functional Movement Screen (FMS) composite scores predict subsequent injury? A systematic review with meta-analysis. British Journal of Sports Medicine. DOI:10.1136/bjsports-2016-096938

Prevention and Management of Tennis Elbow

What is Tennis Elbow?

Tennis elbow (lateral epicondylitis) is pain that presents on the outside of the elbow.
It usually occurs when the forearm muscles that control the wrist are repeatedly stressed. This causes micro-tearing and degeneration of the common extensor muscle origin at the elbow. Tennis elbow does not only affect tennis players, but can affect anybody who does repetitive movements, such as gripping, lifting kettles or wringing of washing. Of course, as the name suggests, it often affects tennis players, especially on their backhand stroke. Continue reading

Effects of Back Pain on Overhead Hitting and Throwing

What effect does back pain have on the movement pattern of the upper limb and trunk during overhead hitting or throwing?

During throwing the thoracic spine influence the scapulo-thoracic position and glenohumeral motion. A thoracic kyphosis produce both abduction and protraction of the scapula and changes the orientation of the glenoid. This reduces the clearing space for the humeral head and increase anterior translation.

Thoracic rotation

Trunk pre-rotation towards the dominant side adds force that obliques externus may be able to generate increased force due to greater ROM. Counter-Clockwise Thoracic rotation limitation (for right handed pitchers in the late cocking phase) will reduce forward acceleration of the throwing arm Continue reading

Prevention and Rehabilitation of Thrower’s Elbow

1. What is Thrower’s elbow?

Medial or inside elbow pain may be caused by performing repetitive badminton overhead smashing. These forceful strokes cause inside elbow stress on the elbow (or medial valgus stress), (Fleisig et al., 1996), and may have the following consequences: golfer’s elbow (flexor-pronator tear or tendinosis), nerve irritation (ulnar neuritis), or Ulnar Collateral Ligament (UCL) sprains or ruptures, (Bell, 2006). This ongoing stress on the elbow causes further damage by overloading the bony elbow structures at the back and cause loose bodies and more instability Continue reading

Skiing

Management of ACL Ruptures in Skiers

Clinical Guidelines for the Management and Return to Competition of Professional Alpine Skiers Suffering from Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Rupture

Author: Suegnet Meyer

Introduction

Knee InjuryThe Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) is the primary knee stabiliser that prevents anterior laxity of the tibia in relation to the femur and provides rotational knee stability (Negus et al., 2012). In the United States, approximately 200,000 Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstructions (ACLR) are performed annually at a cost of $3 billion (Brophy et al., 2009). Devastating evidence estimates up to 10% of professional alpine skiers will end their careers due to ACL ruptures or tears (Pujol et al., 2007).

Aim

This Clinical Guidance is aimed at Physiotherapists, Strength & Conditioning Coaches and Doctors to prevent and manage ACL ruptures during professional downhill, freestyle skiing and ski-cross during off-season. Continue reading

Quadriceps Dysfunction in Patello Femoral Pain Syndrome

Knee PainThere exists a lack of consensus determining the etiology of Quadriceps Dysfunction in Patello Femoral Pain Syndrome (PFPS). It is suggested that multifactorial causes for PFPS exist. For example: Quadriceps muscle mass can be reduced due to Vastus medialis atrophy causing Quadriceps strength deficiency or altered Quadriceps recruitment patterns. Abnormal activation patterns due to deficient neuromuscular imbalance causing Vastus lateralis to contract earlier than Vastus Medialis Oblique resulting in a lateral directed force on the patella and abnormal patella tracking has also been suggested. Thus abnormal activation patterns due to a deficient neuromuscular pattern has been considered. Continue reading

Spine Injuries in Sport

Author: Suegnet Meyer

Introduction

This literature review looks at Cervical Injuries that occur during participation in sport. It looks at injuries that happen in sport with frequent impact, e.g. Rugby and American Football, and also injuries due to continuous strain induced by high G-forces, e.g. Motorsport and Bob-Skeleton.

Aims

The aims of this literature review are to establish: 1) Which muscles stabilise the neck? 2) Which Cervical Strengthening (CS) exercises are most effective? 3) Whether cervical strengthening is effective for rehabilitation and injury prevention? Continue reading

Achilles Tendinopathy

Achilles Tendinopathy is commonly known as Achilles Tendinitis. It is a frequent cause of lower calf pain and heel pain. It is usually characterised by a degeneration or worn down of the Achilles tendon, which means it does not possess its normal tensile strength and may be liable to further damage and pain during sporting activity.

Signs & Symptoms

Achilles InjuryThe main symptoms are pain and stiffness of the tendon,  just above your heel bone. It usually develops gradually and may be more noticeable after a period of rest, such as first thing in the morning. The pain may improve with exercise to begin with. Over time, symptoms may worsen; you may start to experience pain after exercise and finally pain during exercise. The tendon above your heel may appear slightly swollen and feel stiff. Continue reading

Biomechanical Analysis and Measurement of Vertical Jump as a Performance Indicator in Basketball

Author: Suegnet Meyer

Introduction

Vertical jump (VJ) determines explosive lower limb power (Linthorne, 2001). This discussion highlights the VJ kinetic and kinematic pattern and the biomechanical factors maximising vertical jump height (VJH). Furthermore, VJ measurements are analysed and VJ as a basketball performance measure is assessed.

1. Kinetic & Kinematic analysis

Various VJ techniques take place in a sagittal plane. The squat jump (SJ) starts from a stationary semi-squat position excluding the pre-stretching phase. The countermovement jump (CMJ) phases: Continue reading